Scientific Writing Communication-Hofmann

Saya lagi baca buku Scientific Writing and Communication: Paper, Proposal and presentations karya Angelika Hofmann penerbit Oxford press. Buku ini ngasih banyak tips untuk para peneliti tentang bagaimana menulis dan komunikasi scientifik yang efektif. Buknya dibagi 6 bagian, yaitu:

  1. Scientific writing basic: style and composition
  2. Planning and Laying the foundation
  3. Manuscripts: research papers and Review Articles
  4. Grant Proposals
  5. Posters and presetnations
  6. Job Applications

Berikut ini beberapa catatan saya dari buku ini:

Scientific Writing Basics: 

Aturan umum:

  1. Write with the reader in mind
  2. Use Precise words
  3. Use simple words
  4. Omit unnecessary words and phrases
  5. Avoid too many abbreviations
  6. Use correct nomenclature and terminology
  7. Establish importance
  8. Place old, familiar and short information at the beginning of a sentence in the topic position
  9. Place new, complex, or long information at the end of a sentence in the stress position
  10. Get to the subject of the main sentence quickly, and make it short and specific. If possible, use central caracters and topics as subject
  11. Avoid Interruptions between subject and verb and between verb and object
  12. Use the first person
  13. Use the active voice
  14. Use the past tense for observations and specific conclusions
  15. Use present tense for general rules and established knowledge
  16. Write short sentences. Aim for one main idea in a sentence
  17. Use active verbs
  18. Avoid noun clusters
  19. Use clear pronouns
  20. Use correct parallel form
  21. Avoid faulty comparisons
  22. Avoid errors in spelling, punctutation and grammar
  23. Organize your paragraphs
  24. Use a topic sentence to provide an overview of the paragraph
  25. Use consistent order
  26. Use consistent point of view
  27. Make your sentences cohesive
  28. Use key terms to create continuity. Repeat them exactly and early, and link them
  29. Use transitions to indicate logical relationships between sentences
  30. Make your writing concise

Aturan khusus pada situasi tertentu:

  1. Understand the scientific method
  2. Strive to communicate your finding recently
  3. be ethical
  4. Understand how reader go about reading
  5. Distinguish between science writing and scientific writing
  6. Distinguish between expository and technical writing
  7. Practice writing
  8. Watch out for misused word
  9. Avoid sexism
  10. The location of words within a sentence is important for its interpretation
  11. Arrange ideas in a list to read from shorter to longer 
  12. Use correct prepositions
  13. Use correct articles
  14. Use correct plural and singular verb forms
  15. Use correct form irregular verbs
  16. Do not omit endings of verbs
  17. Follow a verb with the correct gerund or infinitive form
  18. Distinguish between adjective and adverb
  19. Ensure that every sentence has a subject
  20. Arrange the details in the remaining sentences
  21. Establish importance
  22. Omit “overview” words, phrases and sentences
  23. Avoid writing in the negative
  24. Omit excessive detail
  25. Do not overuse intensifiers or hedges

Planning and laying the foundation

Tips untuk prewriting and drafting:

  1. Search journal for the best match of topic, audience and journal

  2. Instruction to Authors: obtain and follow

  3. Decide Authorship befora starting to write

  4. Follow IMRAD format

  5. Start by writing less

  6. worry about basic rules, principles and guidelines in the revisions

  7. collect, organize and study your references

  8. pay attention to order and organization

  9. organize your data and ideas before writing

Untuk mengatasi Writers block

  1. Know that you are not alone
  2. Organize your material
  3. Use a cheap, ugly notebook
  4. Make your own rules
  5. Use provided sample sentences as a starting points
  6. Learn to imitate
  7. Write as if you are explaining your work to a friend
  8. Write one paragraph at atime
  9. Set yourself some deadlines
  10. Involve coauthors
  11. Percolate
Untuk kita yang bahasa inggris bukan bahasa ibu: be careful applying the same principles of style that are

Outside help

  • Hire a scientific editor
  • Collect sample phrases for references
  • Consult books on scientific/technical writing

References and Plagiarism

  • References the ideas and findings of others
  • Differentiate between primary, secondary and tertiary sources
  • Select the most relevant references
  • Verify your references against the original document
  • Manage your references well
  • Follow the journal citation style for details in the reference citation
  • Cite references in the correct form and order
  • Remain objective and neutral when citing the work of the others
  • Know where to place references in a sentence

Plagiarism

  • Ensure that you are not plagiarizing
  • Know how to paraphrase
  • Keep track of ideas and references
  • Know where to place references in a scientific paper
  • Follow the journal reference list style
  • Know how to cite and list references from the internet

Acknowledgments

  • List all the people whose help was important but not enough to warrant authorship
  • Disclose any possible conflict of interest

Gambar dan tabel

  • Decide whether to present data in a table, a figure, or in the text
  • Use the fewest figures and tables needed to tell a story
  • Design figures and tables to have strong visual impact
  • Figures and tables should be able to stand on their own
  • Prepare figures and tables with the reader in mind-place information where the reader expects to find it

Gambar

  • Use figures to show trends and relationships and to emphasize data
  • Prepare professional figures
  • Do not mislead readers
  • Use line graphs for dynamic comparisons
  • Use Scatter plots to find a correlation for a collection of data
  • Use bar graphs when findings can be subdivided and compared
  • Use pie charts to compare parts of a whole
  • Use box plants to display differences between data sets, especially in descriptive statistics
  • Place the independent variables in the x-axis and the dependent variables at the y-axis
  • Make each figures easy to read
  • Differentiate points, lines and curves well
  • Label axes and scales well
  • Use a logarithmic scaled graph when your data covers a large range over many powers of 10

Tabel

  • Prepare tables rather than graphs when it is important to give precise numbers
  • Keep the structure of your table as simple as possible
  • Place familiar context on the left and new, important information on the right
  • Design table titles to identify the specific topic
  • Label dependent variables in column headings and independent variables in row headings
  • Avoid overly large tables

Formula

  • Treat Equations and formulas as part of the text
  • Present algorithms in the text as a flow chart or as a list of instructions

Analisa statistik

  1. Gunakan analisa statistik untuk menentukan tren data dan kemungkinan kemunculan
  2. Pahami istilah umum statistik dan perhitungannya
  3. Pahama kurva distribusi umum
  4. Pelajari bagaimana melakukan analisa statistik
    • Rencanakan pengujian dan putuskan populasi yang akan dipelajari
    • Kumpulkan data
    • Tentukan distribusi yang sesuai
    • Analisa data seperti rata-rata, standar deviasi dan signifikansi data dari sebuah distribusi
    • Tarik kesimpulan untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian
  5. Pahami tentang null hypotesis dan signifkansi statistik
  6. Pelajari bagian analisa statistik mana yang akan digunakan
  7. Pelajari pengetahuan dasar yang diperlukan
  8. Pelajari bagaimana untuk melaporkan data statistik
  9. Pelajari bagaimana untuk melaporan signifikan statistik
  10. Pelajari bagaimana untuk menampilkan nilai statistik secara grafis

Manuskrip: paper penelitian dan artikel review  

Introduction

  1. Buat pembaca tertarik dan jelaskan konteks pembahasan
  2. Ikuti struktur Funel:
    • Untuk paper investigative:
      1. Background
      2. Unknown/Problem
      3. Question/Purpose of study
      4. Pendekatan pengujian
      5. Results dan kesimpulan (opsional)
      6. Signifikansi
    • Untuk paper deskriptive:
      1. Background
      2. Discovery statement
      3. Experimental approach-if appropriate
      4. Description
      5. Implication
  3. Keep introduction short
  4. Provide pertinent background information, but do not review the literature
  5. State the problem or unknown
  6. State the central point (question/purpose) precisely
  7. State the experimental approach briefly
  8. For descriptive papers include…..
  9. Distinguish between past and present tense
  10. Use strong verbs and short sentences
  11. Ensure good cohesion and coherence
  12. Signal all the elements of the introduction
  13. Do not omit any element

Materials and method

  1. Provide enough details and references to enable a trained scientist to evaluate or repeat your work
  2. Include material and methods, but no result
  3. Provide literature references where needed
  4. Include sufficient technical details to let others repeat your work
  5. Use Parentheses for technical specifications
  6. Indicate any statistical analysis performed
  7. Place full descriptions of procedures or other lengthy details in an appendix
  8. arrange experimental details as protocols grouped in order or by subsections
  9. Signal and link the different topics
  10. Explain the purpose for any procedure whose function is not clear
  11. In the materials and methods section, passive voice is often preferred
  12. do not switch from one point of view to another for no apparent reason
  13. Distinguish between past and present tense
  14. Choose your words carefully
  15. Follow guidelines on ethical conduct
  16. Indicate ethical conduct for human experimentation
  17. indicate guidelines followed for care and use of laboratory

Results

  1. Report your main findings as well as other important findings
  2. include control results
  3. point the reader to the data shown in figures and tables
  4. Interpret your results for the reader
  5. Place statistical information with data. Do not use it instead of results
  6. Place results that answer the question of the paper at the beginnig of the results section
  7. Organize the results section chronologically or from most to least important
  8. Emphasize your results. Subordinate secondary information
  9. Organize your results into different segments. In each segment, state:
    • purpose or background of experiment
    • experimental approach
    • results
    • interpretation of results (optional for descriptive papers)
  10. Describe what you discovered in the results section of descriptive papers
  11. pay attention to word choice
  12. use past tense for your results but present tense for descriptive papers
  13. use signals to hoghlight diverse elements of the results
  14. do not omit any key elements of the results
  15. omit peripheral information and irrelevant general statements
  16. avoid experimental details
  17. avoid general conclusions, speculations, or comparisons with other studies

Masih banyak lagi nanti insyaallah saya lanjutkan

 

 

 

Silahkan tuliskan tanggapan, kritik maupun saran